Mahatma Gandhi biography-Mahatma Gandhi was a great patriotic Indian, if not the greatest. He was a man of an unbelievably great personality. He certainly does not need anyone like me praising him. Furthermore, his efforts for Indian independence are unparalleled. Most noteworthy, there would have been a significant delay in independence without him. Consequently, the British because of his pressure left India in 1947.
Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence is probably his most important contribution. This philosophy of non-violence is known as Ahimsa. Most noteworthy, Gandhiji’s aim was to seek independence without violence. He decided to quit the Non-cooperation movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident. This was due to the violence at the Chauri Chaura incident. Consequently, many became upset at this decision. However, Gandhi was relentless in his philosophy of Ahimsa.
India’s foremost Gandhian Bapu is one of the foremost freedom fighters of India. A few days later, when his birthday is approaching, let us know a little about him as a tribute.
Mahatma Gandhi Personal life: –
|Born: –||2 October 1869|
|Place of birth: –||Porbandar|
|Died: –||30 January 1948 Gandhi Smriti (Indian Empire)|
|Final Place (Samadhi): –||Rajghat Complex|
|Institute of Studies: –||University College London|
|Occupation: –||Advocate, Politician, Political Writer, Journalist, Philosopher, Autobiographer, Essay Writer, Daily Editor, Civil Rights Advocate, Humanist, Peace Activist, Revolutionary,|
|Political Party: –||Indian National Congress|
|Children: –||Harilal Gandhi, Manilal Gandhi, Ramdas Gandhi, Devdas Gandhi|
|Father: –||Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi|
|Mother: –||Putlibai Karamchand Gandhi|
|Family: –||Raliyatben Gandhi, Muliben Gandhi, Pankunwarben Gandhi, Laxmidas Gandhi, Karsandas Gandhi.|
The concept of nonviolent civil disobedience he got from Leo Tolstoy and Henry David Thoreau was used by him to oust the British and make India independent. Inspired by this, the people of many regions fought against the British for the independence of their country and gradually the area of the British Empire was reduced to their own country Britain and Scotland. Gandhiji’s Satyagraha model paved a new path for many pro-democracy activists like Martin Luther King Jr. Martin often said that Gandhiji’s ideals were simple.
Mahatma Gandhi Birth: –
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbandar, Gujarat to a Hindu Vaishnava merchant family. His ancestors were in the grocery business. In the three generations before Gandhiji, no one did Gandhi’s business and he was the dewan of some kingdom. His father Karamchand Gandhi was also the Diwan of Porbandar State. He was also the Diwan of Rajkot and Wankaner. According to the Vaishnava tradition, his family was a strict vegetarian. Due to the prevalent practice of child marriage among Hindus, Gandhiji married Kasturba at the age of only 13. Kasturba was from Rajkot. At the time of marriage, Gandhiji was one year younger than Kasturba, i.e. Kasturba was 14 years old.
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Mohandas Gandhi had four sons – the eldest son Harilal (b. 1888), then Manilal (b. 1892), then Ramdas (b. 1897) and the youngest son Devdas (b. B. 1900).
The child Mohan was given the sacrament of non-violence by his mother. His mother was religious in nature. They used to go to the temple for worship and also fast. Mother gave Mohan a thorough knowledge of Hindu traditions and values. He advised Gandhiji to always be a vegetarian. The child Mohan also received religious tolerance, a simple lifestyle and the rites of non-violence from his mother.
Mahatma Gandhi Study: –
Gandhiji was a very ordinary student till his youth. He did his initial studies in Porbandar and then in Rajkot. After barely passing the matriculation exam, e. In 1887, he entered Shamaldas College, affiliated to the University of Bombay, for higher studies. However, they did not survive there. Many of his family members were working in high positions in Gujarat. His family wanted him to become a barrister in order to maintain such a family status. So he went to England to study. Moreover, according to their beliefs built on the British rule in India, England was the land of thinkers and poets as well as the center of discipline. So he jumped at the chance to go to England.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is called Mahatma. He was a shrewd statesman. He fought for the liberation of India from British rule and raised his voice for the rights of poor Indians. The mantra he taught of non-violent protest is remembered with reverence all over the world today.
As a teenager, Mohandas had a rebellious nature. At that age, Mohandas wanted to improve himself. Mohandas used to do penance after doing what was sinful in his eyes. He has described it in detail in his autobiography ‘Truth Experiments’.
When Mohandas Gandhi’s father was on his deathbed, he left his father and went to live with his wife and his father died. After that incident, Mohandas was very sorry about his behavior. His first child died shortly after birth, which Gandhiji considered a divine punishment for his sins, which he mentions in his autobiography.
Study of Advocacy in London: –
Mohandas was studying at Bhavnagar College in Mumbai, but he was not happy there. At that time he was invited to study law at the famous Inner Temple in London. The elders of the family had persuaded him that if he went abroad, he would be left out, but ignoring all the difficulties, Gandhi went to London to study. There he kept his word to his mother and did not eat meat.
In London, Mohandas Gandhi was completely dyed in Western colors, but at that time he saw the brotherhood in the ongoing vegetarian movement in London and he joined it.
He also received lessons in the Hindu tradition from the Theosophical Society of London and was inspired to return home, the rites of passage given to Mohandas by his mother.
Inspired by the Theosophical Society, he made cosmopolitanism his principle, giving equal status to all human beings and believers in all religions.
Advocacy in India: –
After completing his law studies, Mohandas Gandhi returned to India and started practicing law. He failed in advocacy in India. They lost their first case. Meanwhile, he was evicted from the home of an English officer.
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Extremely humiliated by the incident, Mohandas Gandhi was invited to work in South Africa, which he immediately accepted. Arrived in Africa to fight the lawsuit of a Gujarati businessman.
Insults in South Africa: –
Mohandas Gandhi was traveling in a first class compartment of a train in South Africa when he was thrown out of the compartment by an Englishman with his luggage. Saddened by the incident, he founded the Indian Congress in South Africa to protest against the treatment and discrimination of non-resident Indians in South Africa.
Gandhi started a movement in the South African province of Natal to protest the isolation of Indians from the rest of society.
It was during this struggle for the rights of Indians in South Africa that Gandhi began experimenting with principles such as self-purification and satyagraha. Self-purification and satyagraha were part of Gandhi’s broader idea of non-violence.
Meanwhile, Gandhiji took a vow of celibacy and started wearing white dhoti, a garment of simplicity in the Indian tradition. In protest of the three-pound tax levied on Indians living in South Africa, he e. Q. The movement started in 1913. He first organized the Indian laborers, miners and farm laborers working in South Africa during the movement and became their pioneers.
With the help of his many years of struggle, Gandhiji decided to march with 2,221 people from Christmas to Transvaal, which he termed as ‘the ultimate civil disobedience’.
Gandhiji was arrested during the march. He was sentenced to nine months in prison, but the strike he launched sparked further protests. The British government in South Africa then had to withdraw the tax imposed on Indians and release Gandhiji from prison. After this success, he became known internationally. The incident was also reported in English newspapers.
After the success of his movement in South Africa, he returned home victorious. After coming to India, Mohandas Gandhi and Kasturba decided to travel to India in a third class coach in the railways. During this trip, he was shocked to see the poverty and people of his country. Meanwhile, he announced his opposition to the British government’s black law, the Rowlatt Act.
The law gave the government the right to arrest and imprison any citizen on suspicion of being an extremist. That is why thousands of people from all over the country took to the streets in protest of the law. There were protests in all the cities.
Jallianwala Baghkand: –
Meanwhile, violence erupted in several places. In Amritsar, General Dyer opened fire on a crowd of more than 20,000 people. More than 400 people were killed and more than 1,300 were injured. After this massacre, Gandhiji decided to start the freedom movement of India.
Due to his growing popularity, Gandhi had now become the leading leader of the Indian National Congress. He also became a pioneer of India’s independence movement from Britain.
Only a group of wealthy Indians made the Indian National Congress a popular party for the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi.
Beginning of Independence Movement: –
Gandhi demanded independence for India on the basis of religious tolerance and freedom of all religions. Protests over Gandhi’s call for a non-violent movement seemed to have the support of all sections and religions of Indian society. He started a non-cooperation movement against the British rule. At Gandhi’s urging, the people of India began a boycott of British goods.
Therefore, the British rulers arrested Gandhiji on the charge of treason. He was jailed for two years. Gandhiji said, “I wear the native dress of India, because that is the easiest and natural way to be Indian.”
Dandikucha and Salt Satyagraha: –
The British government organized a roundtable conference in London to discuss the political future of India, but the British kept all Indians away from the discussion. So Gandhiji was very annoyed. He started a movement against the British salt law. Under British law at the time, Indian citizens could not collect or sell salt. The British knew that salt was essential. Salt is essential for almost all diets. That is why he started selling salt at a higher price.
Due to which Indians had to buy salt from British at high prices. Gandhiji started the Dandi March with thousands of people on March 12, 1930 and completed it on April 6, 1930 in violation of the salt law as a symbolic protest against the British government. So the British arrested him.
After the Salt Satyagraha, Gandhi took a handful of salt and said, “With this handful of salt, I am salting the foundations of the British Empire.”
After this incident, thousands of people refused to pay taxes and revenue to the British government. When the British government finally had to bow down, Gandhiji left for London to attend the Round Table Conference.
Participate in the Round Table Conference : –
Gandhiji was the only representative of the Indian National Congress to attend the Round Table Conference held in London.
Gandhiji presented a powerful image of India by arriving in Indian attire at this conference in London, but the Round Table Conference proved to be a failure for him.
The British Empire was not ready to liberate India. Besides, Muslims, Sikhs and other Indian representatives were not with Gandhiji as the British did not think that Gandhiji was the representative of all Indians.
Gandhiji had the opportunity to meet the British Emperor George V. They also met the mill workers there. Gandhiji gained a lot of fame from these visits. He also won the sympathy of the British for India’s nationalist demands.
Commenting on Gandhiji’s visit to Britain, the powerful British leader Winston Churchill said, “It is very frightening and disgusting that Mr. Gandhi, who is a traitor and an average lawyer, is presenting himself as a fakir.”
After his failure at the Round Table Conference, Gandhi decided to step down as President of the Indian National Congress. They were pushed to the margins of the party.
When Churchill asked India to support Britain in the war against the Nazis, Gandhiji insisted that India should not support Britain in its war against the Nazis as long as Indians were slaves of the British in their own homes. He decided not to take part in the war against Germany only if the British were ready to give India independence.
Quit India Movement: –
Gandhiji then started the ‘British leave India’ movement against the British rule. Gandhiji and his wife Kasturba were sent to jail at the very beginning of the agitation. Violent protests erupted across the country demanding Gandhi’s release from prison, but British Prime Minister Winston Churchill refused to budge.
Gandhi’s wife Kasturba died in custody. Many months after his e. Gandhiji was released from captivity in 1944.
Before the ‘British leave India’ movement, Gandhiji said, “We must liberate India or sacrifice ourselves in this endeavor.” “We will sacrifice our lives for freedom, but we are not willing to live as slaves for life at any cost,” he said.
The demand for independence among the Indians was getting stronger day by day. Eventually, the British government was forced to start a debate for India’s independence.
According to Mountbatten’s plan, India was divided into two independent states, India and Pakistan.
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The division was based on religiosity. The capital, Delhi, was celebrating the country’s independence, but Gandhiji’s dream of a united country was dashed.
The split led to widespread killings. About one crore people had to leave their homes.
Gandhiji was saddened and left Delhi for Calcutta to stop the violence and restore peace there.
The partition of the country led to violent violence. Gandhi returned to Delhi from Calcutta to protect the Muslims living there who had decided to stay in India instead of going to Pakistan. Gandhiji observed fasting for the rights of such Muslims.
Mahatma Gandhi Death: –
Meanwhile, one day while he was attending a prayer meeting at Birla House in Delhi, he was attacked by a man named Nathuram Godse. Gandhi was shot three times in the chest. ‘Hey Ram!’ Gandhiji gave up his life by speaking.
For most Indians, the death of Mahatma Gandhi was a national tragedy. More than one million people attended the funeral of Mahatma Gandhi in Delhi.
His funeral was held on the banks of Yamuna. The death of this priest of non-violence and peace was mourned by people all over the world. His tomb is named ‘Rajghat’.
Living beings Gandhiji could not see his dream of a united India coming true. Mahatma Gandhi himself said about death that ‘life continues its struggle between death. Truth also stands firm in the midst of untruth. The light shines in the darkness all around. ‘
Day of Non-Violence: –
Gandhiji’s non-violent attitude was welcomed all over the world. Inspired by this ideology, Mr. Shirin Ebadi, the Nobel Laureate of Iran in January 2004, proposed to celebrate the International Day of Non-Violence internationally so that the students would understand the importance of non-violence.
The word reached Congress president Sonia Gandhi. With the support of the entire country, the Indian External Affairs Minister made the proposal to the United Nations. Voting took place at the United Nations, with 140 of the 191 countries voting in favor. Therefore, it was decided to celebrate 2nd October as the Day of Non-Violence on 15th July, 2007. Since then, Gandhiji’s birthday has been celebrated as ‘Day of Non-Violence’.
His deeds made him cosmopolitan. He was first addressed as ‘Father of the Nation’ by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in his radio address in Singapore on 6 July 1944. He was also addressed by Sarojini Naidu as the Father of the Nation on 28 April 1947.
He was given the title of ‘Mahatma’ by the poet Rabindranath Tagore. One of the opinions is that he was first called ‘Mahatma’ by a journalist in Jetpur, Saurashtra.
Sabarmati Ashram: –
Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmedabad. This He established this ashram to live before Zadi. So in the beginning it was Gandhiji’s house. Gandhiji established this ashram on 17th June 1917, which is situated on the banks of river Sabarmati.
It was from this ashram that Gandhiji started the Dandi March. In the evening, they would sit on the shores of Sabarmati and pray. This ashram is also known as ‘Harijan Ashram’ or ‘Satyagraha Ashram’.
It was in this ashram that Gandhiji was discussing his issues of freedom struggle with his followers. He taught the Ashram dwellers spinning so that they could become self-reliant.
Even today the dignity of this ashram is maintained. The only difference is that it has now been turned into a Gandhi Museum. Let’s look at some of the features of this ashram.
1. ‘My life is my message’ gallery, which contains 8 magnificent paintings depicting historical events that took place in Gandhiji’s life and more than 50 pictures.
2. Exhibitions of Gandhiji, letters and other relics are shown in the exhibition.
3. A library with about 35 thousand books and 80 magazines on Gandhiji’s life, work, teachings, Indian independence movement and related topics in Hindi, Gujarati and English language along with reading room.
4. The collection contains about 34117 letters written and received by Gandhiji, originals and photocopies, about 8781 manuscripts of Gandhiji’s articles published in Harijan, Harijansevak and Harijanbandhu, and about 6000 photos of Gandhiji and his associates.
5. About 7 lakh visitors visit Sabarmati Ashram every year. Whose needs are taken care of. The Ashram is open to visitors all year round from 8 a.m. to 7 p.m.
6. Charkho used by Gandhiji for making khadi and his table on which he used to write letters, are kept in mind.
Hats off to Gandhiji who dedicated his entire life for the country.
Mahatma Gandhi biography Written by:- Mrs. Snehal Rajan Jani