Friends, as a part of introducing the great personalities of our country to today’s generation, today we will get information about a social reformer, writer, editor and thinker Jyotiba Phule. So today let us know about the Jyotiba Phule biography
Jyotiba Phule Biography:-
|Name||Jyotiba Govinda Rao Phule|
|birth date||11 April 1827|
|place of birth||In Satara village of Pune district of Maharashtra|
|Father’s Name||Govindaray Phule|
|Wife’s Name||Savitribai Phule|
|profession||Revolutionary, social reformer, writer|
|institution||A truth-seeking society|
|Date of death||28 November 1890|
|cause of death||Due to paralytic illness|
Jyotiba Phule was born on April 11, 1827 in the village of Satara, Pune district, Maharashtra. His full name was Jyotiba Govinda Rao Phule, and he was nicknamed “Mahatma.” The framer of the Indian Constitution, Dr. Ambedkar, considered him to be his third guru. Before Mahatma Gandhi, he was known as “Mahatma.” He worked towards the education of girls, the elimination of blind faith, the abolition of child and widow marriage, the elimination of discrimination against untouchables, and the rights of farmers.
Phule Surname History:
He was the youngest of two children born to his father Govindaray and mother Chimnabai. The Peshwa gifted him land in Pune for gardening, and his family used to make flower garlands and sell them. They had been doing this for years, and so due to his floristic business, his surname became “Phule.” His real surname was “Kheersagar.” He lost his mother’s shadow at the age of just one year.
Jyotiba Phule Education:-
Jyotiba learned the basics of writing, reading, and arithmetic in primary school, but he joined the family business without completing his studies. However, someone who knew his father suggested to him that Jyotiba was very intelligent and that he should be taught more. So his father enrolled him in a local Scottish mission school. Jyotiba completed his English studies in 1847.
Marriage – to the first female teacher
As per the social custom of the time, he was married at the age of just 13 to Savitribai Phule, who was India’s first female teacher.
Fight against social injustice:
In 1848, Jyotiba developed a sense of social justice after reading Thomas Paine’s book “The Rights of Man.” At a friend’s marriage, he had a very bitter experience of social discrimination, and this prompted him to start working towards social justice. After much thought, he concluded that the root cause of social injustice was illiteracy. He decided to educate people to prevent them from being exploited by those in power. He vowed to eradicate the caste system from its roots and began this by empowering women.
Desertion with wife:
The Brahmin community, frightened by Jyotiba’s actions, began to cast doubt on his father’s mind. So, Jyotiba left his father’s house with his wife, but he did not stop his work towards social justice. He observed that the condition of women in the lower castes was very poor, and so he decided to educate them. To do this, he first taught his wife Savitribai. Then, both the husband and wife together started a girls’ school in Pune.
Establishment of Satya Shodhak Sabha and Widow Ashram:
In 1863, Jyotiba established a home for pregnant widows to safely give birth. On September 24, 1873, he established the “Satyashodhak Samaj” to support groups such as women, Shudras, and Dalits.
Honored by the British Government:
In 1854, the then Judicial Commissioner, Warden Saheb, honored Jyotiba for his work by publicly presenting him with a shawl. Indian society opposed Jyotiba and his wife while British society openly admired them. One reason for this was that the British did not believe in such idols, which was a positive aspect of their society.
n 1873, Jyotiba and his wife adopted Yashwant, the son of a widow. In 1876-1877, a terrible plague broke out in the Nalasopara area, and the Phule couple treated plague victims day and night. During this time, while treating an affected child, Savitribai was infected and could not recover, and passed away.
On May 11, 1888, Vitthalrao Krishnaji Vandekar, a social reformer from Mumbai, gave Jyotiba the title of “Mahatma.”
Books by Jyotiba Phule:
He published and edited a weekly newspaper called “Dinbandhu” in 1877. Additionally, he also published newspapers named “Ambalhari,” “Deenmitra,” and “Kisano Ka Himayati.”
He wrote books such as “Tritiya Ratna,” “Chhatrapati Shivaji,” “Raja Bhosala Ka Pakhda,” “Brahmanoka Chaturya,” “Kisanaka Koda,” and “Achootoki Kefiyat.”
In 1882, the British government formed the Hunter Commission, led by Sir William Hunter, to investigate the education system in India. Jyotiba Phule submitted written documents to this commission on important issues such as an independent education system at the village level, mathematics, history, geography, elementary knowledge of grammar, knowledge related to agriculture, policy, and knowledge about health.
He was against child marriage and in favor of widow remarriage. He initiated widow remarriage and established the Widow Ashram in 1854.
In 1883, he wrote a short book entitled “Satsara,” attacking Hindu rituals and beliefs. In his book “Kisanaka Koda,” he discussed the blind faith and superstitions prevalent among farmers and the exploitation by moneylenders. His most acclaimed book was “Gulamagiri.”
Jyotiba Phule Death:
On November 28, 1890, this great revolutionary passed away due to paralysis. In his honor, the Government of India issued postage stamps in 1979.
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